Production Process

 Raw Materials

Raw materials are selected according to the purity of materials and granulometric size. The major raw materials used in the glass manufacturing process include Silica Sand, Soda ash, Lime stone, Feldspar, Sodium Sulphate. Along with the major raw materials colouring materials like Selenium or Iron Oxide & Chromic Oxide is used.

 Batch House

Raw materials are stored in the silos of batch house through a loading hopper interconnected with vibrators and elevators. Raw materials from the storage silos are proportionately weighed and dosed on to scales as per the glass formulations. All the weighed raw materials from scale is discharged to mixer and mixed dry and wet, taken to the furnace storage silo. On route from mixer to silo recycled glass is added over the batch to complete the batch mixing process.


Furnace is a refractory structure for melting the glass raw materials. Batch mixture from silo is introduced into the furnace by means of batch charger. A burning flame inside the furnace melts all the raw materials into glass. A temperature of about 1500*C is maintained inside the furnace for melting. Glass from furnace flows to the IS machines via distributor and fore hearth for container formation process.

 Mould Workshop

Glass bottles have classically been fabricated by employing molds in which the glass bottles are formed. The metal bottle molds employed in for forming glass bottles are frequently fabricated from cast iron, having a glass contact surface for defining the shape of the glass.

 Forming Machines

The most widely used forming machine arrangement is the individual section machine (or IS machine). This machine has a bank of 5-20 identical sections, each of which contains one complete set of mechanisms to make containers. The forming machines hold and move the parts that form the container. Generally powered by Electric power and compressed air, the mechanisms are timed to coordinate the movement of all these parts so that containers are made. At Majan Glass , two primary methods of making a glass container — the blow and blow method and the press and blow method are followed. In both cases a stream of molten glass, at its temperature (1050°C-1200°C), is drawn from the spout bowl through Orifice Ring Punched through Refractory plungers and cut with a shearing blade to form a weighed Drop of glass, called a gob. Both processes start with the gob falling with gravity to the Scoops  and distribute to the section through Trough and Deflectors, , into the blank moulds to form a pre shape of the bottle is called Parison and then the Parison passes into the Blow section to Form a complete shape of the Bottle with Final  blow and Finish cooling In the blow and blow process. In the Press and blow Process drop of glass Pushed from the metallic Plunger and make a pre shape bottle (parison) and flip into the blow side for the final blow and finish cooling to complete shape of bottles. The bottle then passes through the main conveyor transfer to the cross conveyor and transfer unit to the Annealing Lahr for the Annealing Purpose .

 Annealing Lehr

Annealing is a process to remove stress and strain from the container glass. As glass cools immediately it shrinks and solidifies, uneven cooling causes weak glass due to stress to avoid sudden cooling of containers it is passed through an annealing oven (known in the industry as a Lehr) it reduces the container temperature gradually from 650 degree to 100 degree depending up on the container size or Forming M/C Speed, over a 50 – 180 minute period.

 Cold End Coating

At the cold end a layer of typically, polyethylene wax, is applied via a water based emulsion. This makes the glass slippery, protecting it from scratching and stopping containers from sticking together when they are moved on a conveyor. The resultant invisible combined coating gives a virtually unscratchable surface to the glass. Due to reduction of in-service surface damage the coatings often are described as strengtheners, however a more correct definition might be strength retaining coatings.

 Cold End Inspection Machines

The role of the cold end inspection machine is to inspect the containers for defects , package the containers for shipment and label the containers. Glass containers are 100% inspected by automatic machines also by visual inspection, inspect every container for a variety of faults. Typical faults include checks inspection like finish, neck, shoulder, body, heel area and base, dip inspection, wall thickness , dimensional inspection, side wall inspection , stress detection, sealing surface & base inspection, Mould number reader. In addition to rejecting faulty containers, inspection equipment gathers statistical information and relays it to the forming machine operators in the hot end. Computer systems collect fault information to the mould that produced the container. Operators carry out a range of checks manually on samples of containers, usually visual and dimensional checks.

 Quality Checking

Sample bottle from each cavity from the running moulds are taken and the following test are conducted as per quality plan frequency and product specification requirements.

  • Pressure test
  • Thickness test
  • Line simulation test
  • Impact test
  • Thermal shock test
  • Weight and capacity test
  • Annealing test
  • Dimensional Test
  • Hotend Coating Test
  • Coldend Coating Test
  • Finish Coating Test
  • Online Inspection M/C Calibration
  • Sampling for the physical parameter and defects for glass bottles
 Palletizing & Shrinking

Glass containers are packed in various ways. Popular are bulk pallets with ranging between 1500 and 6000 containers each pallet. This is carried out by automatic machines called Palletizer, which arrange and stack containers separated by layer pads. Labeled, packed and shrinked pallets are ready for warehousing and dispatch.


Glass container manufacture in the developed world is a mature market business. The marketing/production challenge is to predict demand in the short 4-12 week term and over the 24-48 month long term. The factory produces around 1-3 million containers a day. Despite its positioning as a mature market product, glass does enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and is perceived as a “premium” quality packaging format.